References List - you can find each article’s abstract in the relevant pdf, available on Evidence - Research

Recent publications on addressing bias

Jenny Margrethe Vej; Valeria Borsotti; Valkyrie Savage; Morten Engell-Nørgård; Pernille Bjørn. (2022) 'DOREEN: A Game of Provocations Creating New Ambitions for Equity in Computing through Intertextual Design' '22: Nordic Human-Computer Interaction Conference October 2022 Article No.: 86, Pages 1–8 

Donna Hurford and Andrew Read (2022) Bias-aware Teaching, Learning and Assessment. UK: Critical Publishing. Copies available from Critical Publishing

This book offers university teachers informed and practical strategies for raising awareness of bias in teaching, learning and assessment practices. 

Check out the Equality, Diversity and Inclusion section in the Times Higher Education Campus Resources for academics and university staff -

for regular blog posts by university teachers and staff including the following:

Hurford, Donna and Read, Andrew (25.07.23) 'Sensitive marking and the end of the line for the academic essay'. Available at 

Hurford, Donna and Borsotti, Valeria (24.11.22) ‘Managing excluding behaviour and bigotry in the classroom. A reflective tool to help university teachers manage inappropriate or offensive behaviour in the classroom’. Available at 

Hurford, Donna and Read, Andrew (22.10.22) ‘Collegiate Commentary: Five Inquiries into Assessment and Feedback’. Available at 


National and Nordic reports and articles on bias in Higher Education Institutions and education

Press Articles

' Hvis naturvidenskab var mere virkelighedsnær, ville det interessere flere' 15. juni 2020, Information, Sektion 1, Side 13, Lise Richter..., 941 ord, Id: e7c0563e

Ny analyse: Kvinder fravælger naturvidenskabelige Uddannelser 15. juni 2020, Information, Sektion 1, Side 12, Lise Richter..., 1031 ord, Id: e7c0563b.

SDU i kampen for ligestilling: -Det er et samfundsansvar 8. marts 2020, Danmark Fyns Amts Avis, Sektion 1, Side 28, Isabella Tvede, 723 ord, Id: e79c852a.


Gender and STEM 

Madsen, L. M., Holmegaard, H. T., & Ulriksen, L. (2015). Finding a way to belong: negotiating gender at University STEM study programmes. Abstract from NARST, Chicago, IL, United States.

E. Drew and S. Canavan 2021 (eds),  The gender-sensitive university: a contradiction in terms, Routledge, London. Available as a pdf from SDUB.


Impact on Academic Peer Review

Amabile. T., 1983. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Volume 19, Issue 2, pp. 146-156
Available from Google Scholar. 231 Citations

Wennerås & Wold. 1997. Nepotism and sexism in peer-review

The Swedish Research Council, 2012; Jämställdhetsobservationer i fyra beredningsgrupper 2011

Budden et al. 2014. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution Vol.23 No.1. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2007.07.008.
Available from SDUUB

Kaatz et al. 2014. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. Vol. 35. No. 8. pp. 371-373 
Available from SDUB


Impact on Assessment of Learning

Battena. J., Bateya. J., Shafea. L., Gubby, L. and Birch. P. (2013) The influence of reputation information on the assessment of undergraduate student work. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 2013 Vol. 38, No. 4, 417–435
Available from SDUUB

Hinton D.P, Higson H. (2017) A large-scale examination of the effectiveness of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences in higher education assessment. PLoS ONE 12(8): e0182711
Avalable from PLOS ONE

Malouff, J.M. and Thorsteinsson, E.B. (2016) ‘Bias in grading: A meta-analysis of experimental research findings. Australian Journal of Education Vol. 60(3) 245–256.
Available from SDUB

Read. B., Francis, B. & Robson, J. (2005) Gender, ‘bias’, assessment and feedback: analyzing the written assessment of undergraduate history essays, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 30:3, 241-260, DOI: 10.1080/02602930500063827
Available from Google Scholar – 70 Citations


Impact on Grants and Funding

Mutz et al. 2015. Does Gender Matter in Grant Peer Review? An Empirical Investigation Using the Example of the Austrian Science Fund. Zeitschrift für Psychologie (2012), 220, pp. 121-129

Van der Lee, R. and Ellemers, N. 2015. PNAS. Vol 112 No.40. pp. 12349-12353


Impact on Novelty

Phillips, K. W. et al., 2006. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations. Vol 9 No.4. pp. 467–482

Taylor. K.E. et al., 2011. Biology of Sex Differences Vol. 2. No.11. BioMed Central Limited

Galinsky, A. D., Todd, A. R., Homan, A. C., Phillips, K. W., Apfelbaum, E. P., Sasaki, S. J., ... Maddux, W. W. (2015). Maximizing the Gains and Minimizing the Pains of Diversity: A Policy Perspective. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10(6), 742-748

Martin & Phillips, 2017. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. Vol. 142. Pages 28-44
Available from SDUUB

Lee, Y. S., Chang, J. Y. and Choi, J.N. (2017) Why Reject Creative Ideas? Fear as a Driver of Implicit Bias Against Creativity. Creativity Research Journal Vol. 29 (3) pp. 225-235


Impact on Teaching and Learning

Spencer S.J., Steele C.M., & Quinn D.M. (1999) Stereotype threat and women's math performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 35(1):4-28.
Available from Google Scholar. 3040 Citations

Ambady N.., Shih M., Kim A., & Pittinsky T.L. (2001) Stereotype Susceptibility in Children: Effects of Identity Activation on Quantitative Performance. Psychological Science 12(5):385-390
Available from Google Scholar 530 Citations

Riegle-Crumb, C. and Humphries, M. (2012). Exploring Bias in Math Teachers’ Perceptions of Students’ Ability by Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Gender & Society, 26(2), pp.290-322

Van den Bergh, L., Denessen, E., Hornstra, L., Voeten, M. and Holland, R. W. (2010) The Implicit Prejudiced Attitudes of Teachers: Relations to Teacher Expectations and the Ethnic Achievement Gap. American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 47, (2), 497-527. Available from SDUUB. 296 Citations

Cuesta, M., & Witt, A.-K. (2014). How Gender Conscious Pedagogy in Higher Education Can Stimulate Actions for Social Justice in Society. Social Inclusion, 2 (1), 12-23
Available from Google Scholar

Vallejo, M., Torralbo, M. and Fernández-Cano, A., (2016) Gender Bias in Higher Education: Spanish Doctoral Dissertations in Mathematics Education. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education Vol. 15(3) 205–220
Available from SDUUB


Implict Bias Tests

Baker, T. K., Smith, G. S., Jacobs, N. N., Houmanfar, R., Tolles, R., Kuhls, D., Piasecki, M. (2017) A deeper look at implicit weight bias in medical students. Advances in Health Sciences Education. Vol 22 (4), 889-900
Available from Google Scholar

Fiske, S. T.; Cuddy, A. J. C.; Glick, P.; Xu, J. (2002) ‘A Model of (Often Mixed) Stereotype Content: Competence and Warmth Respectively Follow From Perceived Status and Competition’ Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. American Psychological Association. Vol. 82 (6) pp. 878-102
Available from Google Scholar. 4009 Citations

Hillard, A.; Ryan, C. S., Gervais, S. J. (2013) ‘Reactions to the implicit association test as an educational tool: A mixed methods study.’ Social Psychology of Education. Vol. 16 (3), 495-516
Available from Google Scholar. 12 Citations

Jost, J. T., Rudman, L. A., Blair, I. V., Carney, D. R., Dasgupta, N., Glaser, J., Hardin, C. D. (2009) The existence of implicit bias is beyond reasonable doubt: A refutation of ideological and methodological objections and executive summary of ten studies that no manager should ignore. Research in Organizational Behavior. Vol 29. 39-69
Available from SDUUB. 199 Citations


Impact on Staff Recruitment

Goldin, C. and Rouse, C. (1997) Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of "Blind" Auditions on Female Musicians. DOI: 10.3386/w5903. Available from GoogleScholar Google Scholar. 973 Citations

Norton et al., 2004.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. American Psychological Association Vol. 87, No. 6, 817–831
Available from SDUUB

Uhlmann, E. and Cohen, G. L. (2005) Constructed Criteria Redefining Merit to Justify Discrimination. Psychological Science 16(6), 474-480
Available from Google Scholar. 213 Citations

Moss-Racusin, C. A., Dovidio, J. F., Brescoll, V. L., Graham, M. J. and Handelsman, J. (2012) Science faculty’s subtle gender biases favor male students. PNAS 109(41), 16474-16479 
Available from Google Scholar. 681 Citations.

Bayer, A., Rouse, C. E. (2016) Diversity in the Economics Profession: A New Attack on an Old Problem. The Journal of Economic Perspectives. Vol 30 (4), 221-242
Available from Google Scholar. 242 Citations.

Intersectionality and Gender Bias

Beoku-Betts, J. (2004). African Women Pursuing Graduate Studies in the Sciences: Racism, Gender Bias, and Third World Marginality. NWSA Journal, 16(1), pp.116-135
Available from Google Scholar. 76 Citations

Riegle-Crumb, C. and Humphries, M. (2012). Exploring Bias in Math Teachers’ Perceptions of Students’ Ability by Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Gender & Society, 26(2), pp.290-322
Available from Google Scholar. 72 Citations

Best, R., Edelman, L., Krieger, L. and Eliason, S. (2011). Multiple Disadvantages: An Empirical Test of Intersectionality Theory in EEO Litigation. Law & Society Review, 45(4), pp.991-1025
Available from Google Scholar. 78 Citations 

SDU and Gender Equality

SDU’s Gender Equality Team (GET)

Ligestillingsekspert: -Vi er sovset ind i ubevidste forestillinger 8. marts 2020, Danmark Fyns Amts Avis, Sektion 1, Side 29, Isabella Tvede, 870 ord, Id: e79c8547.

Sexism at Danish Universities – the academic #Metoo movement
The draft copy of the book with advice on countering sexism is currently (March 2021) downloadable from this web page, the final version will be available shortly: 

Diversity and Difference Platform
This platform, hosted by CBS, is working with diversity and difference: culture ethnicity, sexuality, to enable inclusion and equality. Working with organisations on diversity management.

Stereotype Threat

Steele, C. M. (1997) A threat in the air. How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American psychologist 52(6), 613-629
Available from Google Scholar. 5683 Citations

Spencer, S. J., Steele, C. M. and Quinn, D. M. (1999) Stereotype Threat and Women’s Math Performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 35
Available from Google Scholar. 2470 Citations

Ambady, N., Shih, M., Kim, A. and Pittinsky, T. L. (2001) Stereotype susceptibility in children: effects of identity activation on quantitative performance. Psychological Science 12(5), 385-390
Available from Google Scholar. 440 Citations


Student Evaluations of Courses and Teachers

Breda, T. and Ly, S. T. (2015) Professors in core science fields are biased in favor of women: evidence from France. American Economic Journal 7(4), 53-75
Available from Google Scholar. 4 Citations.

Doubleday, A.F. and Lee, L. M. J. (2016) ‘Dissecting the voice: Health professions students' perceptions of instructor age and gender in an online environment and the impact on evaluations for faculty.’ Anatomical Sciences Education. Vol. 9 (6) pp. 537-544
Available from SDUUB

Grimes, A., Medway, D., Foos, A., Goatman, A.(2016) ‘Impact bias in student evaluations of higher education.’ Studies in Higher Education, vol. 42 (6), pp. 945-962
Available from SDUUB

MacNell, L., Driscoll, A. and Hunt, A. N. (2014) What’s in a Name: Exposing Gender Bias in Student Ratings of Teaching. Innovative Higher Education 40(4), 291-303
Available from Google Scholar. 61 Citations

Unconscious Bias Training

Atewologun, Doyin; Cornish, Tinu and Tresh, Fatima (2018) Unconscious Bias Training: An assessment of the evidence for effectiveness. Equality and Human Rights Commission, UK. Available at: